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ANTIBIOTICS LIST

What are antibiotics

Antibiotics are a group of drugs, each of which is able to destroy bacteria of a certain type. Doctors are constantly debating about the legality of prescribing such drugs, because most of them suppresses the activity of harmful and beneficial bacteria in the body, causing concomitant diseases. But it is obvious that it is difficult to treat complex diseases with an infectious nature without antibiotics.

Operating principle

Depending on the active component, antibiotics differ in two large groups:
– bacteriostatic block the reproductive function of harmful bacteria, preventing the disease from spreading, the existing pathogenic cells are destroyed by the human immune system;
– bactericidal antibiotics destroy the cause of the disease.
It is important to understand that each drug is effective only for a specific list of microorganisms, therefore, treatment with such means without preliminary diagnosis is not prescribed.

Classification

It would seem that in the variety of antibiotics it is impossible to find any sort of ordered structure. In fact, this is not so, because each drug belongs to one of 11 groups. They radically differ from each other in components and chemical formulas, but the drugs within the same group are similar. Specialists distinguish:
– penicillin and its derivatives;
– cephalosporins (most of them have a bactericidal effect);
– macrolides (bacteriostatic drugs);
– aminoglycosides are very toxic and are used to get rid of bacteria in the genitourinary system, as well as for the treatment of furunculosis;
– tetracyclines;
– fluoroquinolones – antibiotics that do not have a natural analogue, are used in otolaryngology;
– lincosamides – natural-based preparations, the degree of effectiveness of which depends on the concentration;
– carbapenems are powerful new generation drugs that are prescribed in difficult cases if other antibiotics are ineffective;
– polymyxins – very toxic drugs with a narrow focus;
– anti-sycotic drugs – prescribed for getting rid of fungi of different types;
– anti-tuberculosis drugs are effective only in relation to tubercle bacillus and are the main drugs for the treatment of the disease.
Despite the fact that many antibiotics are sold over the counter, a doctor should prescribe them. Incorrect treatment will be ineffective and can cause complications.

Reception methods

Various forms of release of drugs of antibiotic significance are allowed – these are tablets, capsules, solutions for injection, gels and ointments. This determines one of the methods of taking the drug.

  • Orally – orally, through the mouth according to the instructions.
  • Locally – by lubricating the skin on the affected area.
  • Injection – using injections intravenously or intramuscularly.

For simple diseases, antibiotics for oral administration are released. Local preparations are used to remove fungal infections. Injections are given in cases of complex diseases, as well as when the patient cannot take the pills on his own.

Contraindications and side effects

Each drug has its own list of contraindications, which must be considered when treating a disease. However, they all have a number of common limitations.

  • The period of pregnancy and lactation;
  • A pronounced allergic reaction to the components of the drug;
  • Alcohol intoxication.

In any case, the treatment of a woman during the bearing of a child is carried out under the supervision of a specialist. In rare cases, some antibacterial agents may prescribe if such a risk is justified. However, doctors try not to resort to such methods.

Treatment of children is carried out according to the same scheme as adults, that is, the diagnosis is first determined, then a medicine is prescribed, which is taken according to the scheme specified in the instructions or prescribed by the attending physician. The main difference is a reduced concentration of the active component of the drug per 1 kg of weight.

Among the side effects of taking antibiotics are most often observed:

  • Weakening of the body’s immune system;
  • Gastrointestinal upset;
  • Impaired normal metabolism;
  • Toxic reactions.