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Ampicillin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic used to treat various infectious diseases of the respiratory tract (pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, tonsillitis), urinary tract, liver and gastrointestinal tract. It was first introduced into use in 1961 by the British company Beecham.

Active Ingredient: Ampicillin

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What is Ampicillin

Ampicillin is an antibacterial medicinal substance with a pronounced bactericidal effect, active against a wide range of microorganisms.

Ampicillin helps to reduce the activity of transpeptidase, as a result of which the formation of peptide bonds is reduced and the late stage of the synthesis of peptidoglycans of the bacterial cell wall is violated (in the process of division of microorganisms). The use of ampicillin leads to the lysis of bacteria.

Ampicillin is effective in infections associated with alpha and beta hemolytic streptococci, most strains of staphylococci, as well as Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium spp.

When taken orally, ampicillin is well absorbed in the digestive tract, bioavailability reaches 40%. The peak serum level when taking ampicillin at a dose of 500 mg orally is reached in 2 hours and amounts to 3-4 μg / ml. Up to 20% of ampicillin, taken orally, binds to serum proteins.

Ampicillin penetrates well into body fluids and creates therapeutic levels in tissues. It penetrates slightly through the BBB (the degree of penetration through the blood-brain barrier increases with inflammation of the meninges).

It is excreted mainly by the kidneys (up to 80% of the dose taken), creates high concentrations in the urine. It is partially excreted with bile, penetrates into breast milk in women during lactation.

Ampicillin is excreted during hemodialysis and does not cumulate in the body.

Ampicillin Dosage

Doses of ampicillin are selected characteristic of the degree of infection and concomitant therapy. Ampicillin is usually recommended 1–1.5 hours before meals.

A single dose for adult patients is usually from 0.25 to 0.5 g, daily 4 g. In cases of infections of high severity, the dose of ampicillin may be exceeded.

Children are usually prescribed from 50.0 to 100.0 mg-kg-day. For children weighing up to 20 kg, ampicillin is prescribed in a dose of 12.5 to 25.0 mg-kg-day. For children, the daily dose should be divided into 4 times.

The average course of treatment is 7-10 days.

Ampicillin side effects

When using ampicillin orally in patients, the following undesirable symptoms may appear:
– central nervous system: headache, cramps, tremor;
– the gastrointestinal tract: stomatitis, dysbiosis, gastritis, a change in taste, epigastric pain, dry mouth, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, increased levels of liver enzymes;
– blood system: neutropenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anemia;
– urinary system: nephropathy, interstitial nephritis;
– hypersensitivity: peeling and itching of the skin, rhinitis, urticaria, conjunctivitis, Quincke’s edema;
– other: superinfection, vaginal candidiasis.


Ampicillin is not used:
– with increased sensitivity to this medicinal substance, as well as with a history of intolerance to cephalosporin antibiotics, penicillins and carbapenems;
– in the treatment of people with infectious mononucleosis;
– with lymphocytic leukemia;

It is not recommended to prescribe medications to patients with liver failure.

It is also contraindicated in colitis associated with the use of antibacterial drugs.

In pediatrics, an antibiotic is not used for patients under 1 year old.

Ampicillin overdose

When using high doses of ampicillin, patients develop the development of neurotoxicity (especially with concomitant renal failure), vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in the balance of water and electrolytes.

In case of an overdose of oral forms, gastric lavage and the appointment of enterosorbents and saline laxatives are indicated. With ampicillin intoxication, treatment is indicated aimed at reducing the severity of developed symptoms.